Hiking and trekking, whitewater rafting, kayaking, Scuba diving and snorkeling, rappelling and canyoning, volcano climbing (and ash surfing), surfing, mountain biking, horseback riding, hang gliding and canopy ziplining are a start.
Some of the World's best overnight treks are in Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile.
In addition to the classic Inca Trail Trek, some less-crowded and off-the-beaten-path Peru treks include the Salkantay treks, Lares treks, the Santa Cruz Trek in the Cordillera Blanca and the Cordillera Huayhuash Circuit.
Patagonia headliners are the epic Torres del Paine Circuit and 'W' treks. On the Argentina side you can spend a few days based in El Chalten hiking in the Mt. Fitzroy area.
In northwest Argentina around Iruya is the off-the-beaten-path 'Trek to the Silent Valleys'.
Bolivia has the Condoriri and Apolobamba treks.
Adventure sports in the Lakes District of Argentina and Chile include hiking through national parks, climbing the peaks around Bariloche on day hikes, horseback rides and overnight treks, sea kayaking the southern fjords, mountain biking through forests, lake kayaking and river rafting.
Some of the best Class III-V whitewater in Latin America includes the Urubamba and Apurímac in Peru, Costa Rica's Pacuare, the Chiriqui of Panama, Ecuador's Toachi and Upano, and the World-class Futaleufú in Chile.
Folks come to Costa Rica from far and wide for the excellent surfing at select beaches along the Pacific coast.
Scuba diving/snorkeling - many cruises and lodges in the Galapagos offer Scuba diving and snorkeling; off the coast of Belize and Honduras is the second-largest barrier reef in the world with unbeatable diving and snorkeling.
Mountain biking has gained popularity throughout the continent: descending the 'Death Road' in Bolivia, touring Cusco and the Sacred Valley, touring the backstreets of the Lakes District, the Atacama Desert.
Horseback riding is a way of life for the Gauchos of Argentina and you're encouraged to join them on day rides from working estancias.
New and safe ziplines are now flying through forests and jungles throughout Latin America, from Belize to Costa Rica to Panama, Colombia and Peru.
How about hang gliding above Rio de Janeiro?